Environmental Impact Assessment

EIA is an exercise to be carried out before any developmental activity is undertaken to ensure that it will not harm the environment on a short term or long term basis.

Any development requires not only the analysis of the need of such a project, the financial costs and benefits involved but most important, it requires a consideration and detailed assessment of the effect of a proposed development on the environment.

EIA is an activity designed to identify and predict the impact of a project on bio-geo-physico-chemical environment and on human health so as to recommend appropriate legislative measures, programs and operational procedures to minimize the impact.

The main objectives of EIA are:

  • Identification of impacts.
  • Incorporate the suitable mitigation measures in the project to achieve the sustainability of the development action over a long term.
  • The purpose of using EIA is to incorporate development into a planning tool for environments protection on a project-by-project basis

Fig: Systematic approach for using EIA as a planning tool

To measure the level of implementation and the degree of effectiveness of the environmental protection provisions, the EIA provides a monitoring Programme. This Programme will also be designed so that it identifies the parameters of uncertainty and measures the related impacts.

Fig: Various activities in each phase and their interactions

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